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为电视和机顶盒制作应用

目前的 React Native 应用只需在 JavaScript 端简单修改甚至无需修改,在电视和机顶盒设备上就基本可用了。

源代码仓库里的RNTester 演示应用支持在 Apple TV 上运行,使用RNTester-tvOS编译目标来在 tvOS 上编译运行。

编译变更

  • 原生端: React Native 生成的 Xcode 项目现都已包含 Apple TV 编译目标,其名字都带有'-tvOS'后缀。

  • react-native init: 使用react-native init命令创建的新项目会自动在 Xcode 新项目中包含 Apple TV 编译目标。

  • JavaScript 端: 对于电视设备的检测代码已经加入到了Platform模块中。你可以使用下面的代码来检测当前运行设备是否是电视设备:


import {Platform} from 'react-native';
const running_on_tv = Platform.isTV;

// 如果你想更精确地针对tvOS设备(即排除Android设备),
// 那么可以使用下面的代码:
const running_on_apple_tv = Platform.isTVOS;

编译修改

  • 原生端: 在 Android TV 上运行 React Native 项目请先在AndroidManifest.xml中加入下列配置:
  <!-- 加入自定义的banner图作为TV设备上的图标 -->
 <application
  ...
  android:banner="@drawable/tv_banner"
  >
    ...
    <intent-filter>
      ...
      <!-- Needed to properly create a launch intent when running on Android TV -->
      <category android:name="android.intent.category.LEANBACK_LAUNCHER"/>
    </intent-filter>
    ...
  </application>
  • JavaScript 端: 对于电视设备的检测代码已经加入到了Platform模块中。你可以使用下面的代码来检测当前运行设备是否是电视设备:

import {Platform} from 'react-native';
const running_on_tv = Platform.isTV;

代码修改

  • General support for tvOS: Apple TV specific changes in native code are all wrapped by the TARGET_OS_TV define. These include changes to suppress APIs that are not supported on tvOS (e.g. web views, sliders, switches, status bar, etc.), and changes to support user input from the TV remote or keyboard.

  • Common codebase: Since tvOS and iOS share most Objective-C and JavaScript code in common, most documentation for iOS applies equally to tvOS.

  • 访问可点击的控件: When running on Apple TV, the native view class is RCTTVView, which has additional methods to make use of the tvOS focus engine. The Touchable mixin has code added to detect focus changes and use existing methods to style the components properly and initiate the proper actions when the view is selected using the TV remote, so TouchableWithoutFeedback, TouchableHighlight and TouchableOpacity will "just work". In particular:

    • onFocus will be executed when the touchable view goes into focus
    • onBlur will be executed when the touchable view goes out of focus
    • onPress will be executed when the touchable view is actually selected by pressing the "select" button on the TV remote.

  • 访问可点击的控件: When running on Android TV the Android framework will automatically apply a directional navigation scheme based on relative position of focusable elements in your views. The Touchable mixin has code added to detect focus changes and use existing methods to style the components properly and initiate the proper actions when the view is selected using the TV remote, so TouchableWithoutFeedback, TouchableHighlight, TouchableOpacity and TouchableNativeFeedback will "just work". In particular:

    • onFocus will be executed when the touchable view goes into focus
    • onBlur will be executed when the touchable view goes out of focus
    • onPress will be executed when the touchable view is actually selected by pressing the "select" button on the TV remote.

  • TV remote/keyboard input: A new native class, RCTTVRemoteHandler, sets up gesture recognizers for TV remote events. When TV remote events occur, this class fires notifications that are picked up by RCTTVNavigationEventEmitter (a subclass of RCTEventEmitter), that fires a JS event. This event will be picked up by instances of the TVEventHandler JavaScript object. Application code that needs to implement custom handling of TV remote events can create an instance of TVEventHandler and listen for these events, as in the following code:

  • TV remote/keyboard input: A new native class, ReactAndroidTVRootViewHelper, sets up key events handlers for TV remote events. When TV remote events occur, this class fires a JS event. This event will be picked up by instances of the TVEventHandler JavaScript object. Application code that needs to implement custom handling of TV remote events can create an instance of TVEventHandler and listen for these events, as in the following code:


var TVEventHandler = require('TVEventHandler');

class Game2048 extends React.Component {
  _tvEventHandler: any;

  _enableTVEventHandler() {
    this._tvEventHandler = new TVEventHandler();
    this._tvEventHandler.enable(this, function(cmp, evt) {
      if (evt && evt.eventType === 'right') {
        cmp.setState({board: cmp.state.board.move(2)});
      } else if(evt && evt.eventType === 'up') {
        cmp.setState({board: cmp.state.board.move(1)});
      } else if(evt && evt.eventType === 'left') {
        cmp.setState({board: cmp.state.board.move(0)});
      } else if(evt && evt.eventType === 'down') {
        cmp.setState({board: cmp.state.board.move(3)});
      } else if(evt && evt.eventType === 'playPause') {
        cmp.restartGame();
      }
    });
  }

  _disableTVEventHandler() {
    if (this._tvEventHandler) {
      this._tvEventHandler.disable();
      delete this._tvEventHandler;
    }
  }

  componentDidMount() {
    this._enableTVEventHandler();
  }

  componentWillUnmount() {
    this._disableTVEventHandler();
  }

  • Dev Menu support: On the simulator, cmd-M will bring up the developer menu, just like on Android. To bring it up on a real Android TV device, press the menu button or long press the fast-forward button on the remote. (Please do not shake the Android TV device, that will not work :) )

  • TV remote animations: RCTTVView native code implements Apple-recommended parallax animations to help guide the eye as the user navigates through views. The animations can be disabled or adjusted with new optional view properties.

  • Back navigation with the TV remote menu button: The BackHandler component, originally written to support the Android back button, now also supports back navigation on the Apple TV using the menu button on the TV remote.

  • TabBarIOS behavior: The TabBarIOS component wraps the native UITabBar API, which works differently on Apple TV. To avoid jittery rerendering of the tab bar in tvOS (see this issue), the selected tab bar item can only be set from Javascript on initial render, and is controlled after that by the user through native code.

  • Dev Menu support: On the simulator, cmd-M will bring up the developer menu, just like on Android. To bring it up on a real Android TV device, make a long press on the play/pause button on the remote. (Please do not shake the Android TV device, that will not work :) )

  • 已知问题:

    • ListView scrolling. The issue can be easily worked around by setting removeClippedSubviews to false in ListView and similar components. For more discussion of this issue, see this PR.

  • 已知问题:

    • TextInput components do not work for now (i.e. they cannot receive focus).